Water fluoridation not enough to shrink dental health inequalities, study finds | Dentists

Water fluoridation provides a modest benefit for children’s teeth in an era of fluoride toothpastes, but does not shrink inequalities in dental health between rich and poor communities, research has revealed.

Fluoride, a naturally occurring mineral, has been added to drinking water for decades in areas where natural levels are low in a bid to tackle tooth decay.

Water fluoridation occurs in about 25 countries, according to the UK government, and encompasses about 6 million people in England, largely in the West Midlands and the north-east.

Among areas currently looking at introducing the approach are County Durham, Sunderland, South Tyneside and Teesside.

But while water fluoridation is supported by all of the UK chief medical officers, it has proved controversial. What’s more, many studies examining the impact of water fluoridation were conducted before fluoride toothpaste became a household staple.

Now researchers say that while water fluoridation appears to bring benefits, these are much smaller than earlier research suggested.

“We’re aware of a number of different areas that are looking at implementing water fluoridation, so it’s very much a live issue at the moment,” said Dr Michaela Goodwin, senior investigator on the Catfish study, from the University of Manchester.

The team, which published its findings in the journal Public Health Research, focused on two areas of Cumbria, one without water fluoridation and one where fluoridation had only recently restarted.

In both areas they recruited children aged around five years old when fluoridation restarted in parts of the county in 2013, and hence had not previously been exposed to fluoridated water – as well as babies who were conceived after this point in time.

Experts examined the milk teeth of the younger group at three and five years of age, and newly erupting adult teeth for the older group at ages five, seven and 11 years old.

The results from 1,444 children in the younger cohort reveal that 17.4% of those living in fluoridated areas had decayed milk teeth, compared with 21.4% for those in areas without water fluoridation.

After taking into account factors such as age, sex and deprivation, the team found the odds of decay for those in the water fluoridation group compared with the no fluoridation group were 26% lower.

There was no clear evidence of an effect for the 1,192 older children. While the team say this may suggest an important role for fluoride exposure in the womb, they add it could be that not enough time had passed for cavities to develop in the adult teeth.

The team added that the number of teeth that were decayed, missing or filled was lower in fluoridated

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Jackson, Mississippi: Parents in the dark on their children’s health as they learn the scope of lead problems in Jackson’s water


Jackson, Mississippi
CNN
 — 

When her firstborn exhibited extreme sensitivity to smell, sound and touch, along with some obsessive-compulsive tendencies, Sarah Howard wondered if it was her fault, if she’d done something to harm her baby boy during her pregnancy. She just didn’t know.

She and her husband, Andrew, had only recently moved to Jackson in 2006, and he was their first child, the 40-year-old mother of two told CNN.

As he got older, he wouldn’t use public restrooms. The noise of the flushing was overbearing, so he’d just hold it until he couldn’t. He wanted his bathtub filled to a specific level before he’d get in. He demanded pancakes cut a certain way, and his parents kept extra syrup on hand because he always wanted the bottle full. When Jackson’s muggy heat gave way to fleeting winter, the boy struggled wearing pants instead of shorts.

It didn’t compute. Sarah Howard felt she’d done everything right during her pregnancy, she thought, even giving up her beloved coffee.

“I used to wonder if I did something wrong. Did I take the wrong vitamin or something?” she said.

Today, she and Andrew suspect another culprit: Lead in their hometown’s water. It’s a suspicion shared by parents of about 2,000 kids – and quite likely, many more – now suing the city and state. Compounding matters in the capital city of roughly 150,000, residents are accustomed to boiling water, so they can bathe or cook with it, but with lead, boiling water increases the concentration of the known neurotoxin and probable carcinogen.

Several concerned mothers and fathers shared with CNN stories of their youngsters suffering from an array of ailments, and there was remarkable overlap in the symptoms and conditions: forgetfulness, lack of focus, hyperactivity, learning and behavioral disorders, sensory issues and skin problems. Lead exposure, the parents are learning, could cause all of these.

But they just don’t know.

Corey Stern is leading a team of lawyers – some local, some from his New York-based firm, which specializes in lead poisoning and recently secured a settlement of more than $600 million for children in Flint, Michigan – seeking accountability for Jackson families.

The legal team met with hundreds of parents this month at The Mississippi Children’s Museum. As their children practiced puppetry, raced boats on a miniature river, clambered about a jungle gym and spelled words on a Scrabble board the size of a living room, parents quizzed the attorneys about Jackson’s water crisis and the legal remedies to which they might be entitled.

Stern explained the tricky nature of lead poisoning. While the state has blood lead levels at which it takes action, experts concur there is no safe exposure level for humans and children are susceptible to brain damage, especially without medical intervention.

Mom and son share videos of daily life with no clean water in Jackson, Mississippi


01:56

– Source:
CNN

“It’s not the kind of brain damage where if you walk down the street and you saw

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How Does Lemon Water Affect Tooth and Dental Health and fitness?

Lemon drinking water is fairly simple—it’s generally basic drinking water which is been infused with fresh new lemon juice and a couple of optional ice cubes—but there is certainly no denying that it can be exceedingly mouth watering in the summertime (or just after a sweaty exercise routine), as it provides simple drinking water a wow-deserving flavor enhance.

Numerous of us change to lemon h2o as an effort and hard work-totally free way to strengthen our hydration intake 1st matter in the early morning or all over the day. A squeeze of juice and a hint of zest can make drinking water so significantly extra appealing, no? This is doubly genuine for individuals of us who discover a glass of standard tap to be a bit bland on its own—and therefore battle to keep ample fluid to fulfill our body’s each day desires. IMHO, it is fairly tough to uncover an excuse not to guzzle h2o all working day when you have got a mouth watering ice cold pitcher of lemon drinking water in the fridge contacting your identify.

How does lemon h2o affect tooth, gums, and over-all dental wellbeing?

1. Lemon water can enhance saliva creation and freshen breath

The vital benefit of lemon h2o is equally the easiest but also the most critical. As pointed out, its desirable flavor (and lack of sugar or caffeine) can enable with hydration, and our bodies are not able to purpose at their finest with no enough fluid intake—mouth integrated. “Hydration is vital for good salivary output, and the most protecting organic solution of tooth decay transpires to be a properly-hydrated mouth,” claims Beverly Hills-based mostly dentist, Rhonda Kalasho, DDS and CEO of TruGlo Contemporary Dental. “And since lemon is acidic by nature, it has all-natural antiseptic features. This indicates it assists to destroy some bacteria in the mouth, which normally assists to get rid of stink and freshen breath.”

2. The acidity of lemon drinking water may well soften the enamel on your enamel, which can guide to yellowing, cavities, and sensitivity in teeth and gums

Nevertheless, in accordance to Dr. Kalasho, there are also some disadvantages of ingesting lemon h2o when it will come to oral hygiene. “Lemon water’s acidity can be harmful to your enamel, gums, and enamel in the extensive-phrase, except you implement a several simple steps to minimize damage and safeguard your tooth from erosion, decay, or yellowing,” she says.

To get far more distinct, lemon drinking water can soften the enamel on your enamel in excess of time when consumed constantly. “This is simply because anything at all acidic in your diet regime demineralizes your teeth, which is what is actually leading to the enamel to soften,” says dentist Sharon Huang, DDS, MICOI and Founder of Les Belles NYC. She states that the identical goes for other acidic food items and beverages: Espresso, tomato-centered sauces, wine, and so on.

Once enamel turns into extremely softened, Dr. Huang claims that it

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Utility says no health risk from chemical in water

Credit: (NJ Spotlight News)
File photo

Middlesex Water Co. insisted that its supply to some 29,000 residents is safe and that there’s no reason for it to provide alternative sources like bottled water even though water from part of its system contains a toxic “forever chemical” at above a new state health limit for drinking water.

At a public meeting Monday night, the utility’s president, Dennis Doll, defended his decision not to pay for bottled water, install filters, or pump from other sources, saying there’s no threat to public health despite the company’s recent discovery that the presence of a chemical known as PFOA exceeds a maximum contaminant limit implemented last year by the Department of Environmental Protection.

“If this were truly a health emergency, an acute threat that posed an immediate health risk, we would pay for filters, we would pay for bottled water, we would do what it takes to keep our customers safe,” Doll said. “But at the levels we’re talking about, we do not believe this is an immediate health risk.”

Confusion over whether the water is safe to drink prompted the mayors of Woodbridge, Metuchen, South Plainfield and Edison to hire a consultant to advise them on how to proceed. Woodbridge Mayor John McCormac said the town leaders want to make sure they understand what both the DEP and Middlesex Water are saying.

“We’re not going to get in the middle of it but our residents are going to ask us questions and we want to be able to answer them with the answer from our expert,” McCormac said in an interview with NJ Spotlight News.

McCormac said the towns decided to hire a consultant for that outside perspective, not because they didn’t trust either the company or the DEP.

“They are coming at it from two different angles,” McCormac said. “One’s a private company, the other is a government. We just want to be able to tell our residents that we understand the issues, and the only way that can happen is if we have our own person explaining the issues to us.”

The consultant will help determine if residents need to buy bottled water or install filtration systems, McCormac said. “I just want them to have the facts.”

Notice sent last week

On Friday, the company issued a required “notice of exceedance” to residents of six towns in Middlesex and Union counties — South Plainfield, Edison, Metuchen, Woodbridge, Clark and Rahway.

The letter advised that test results in September showed water from a South Plainfield treatment plant contained the chemical at levels above the state’s new limit of 14 parts per trillion — which DEP has determined is the safe limit for human consumption over a lifetime.

The notice drew dozens of people to a meeting at Colonia High School where many said they were fearful of the health consequences of drinking water that contains the chemical outside a regulatory limit, and were struggling to reconcile the company’s assurances that the water is

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